In the beginning, he was just a man.
A Sioux Indian.
Today, he is becoming a mountain.
“A very great vision is needed and the man who has it must follow it as the eagle seeks the deepest blue of the sky. I was hostile to the white man…we preferred hunting to a life of idleness on our reservations. At times we did not get enough to eat and we were not allowed to hunt. All we wanted was peace and to be left alone. Soldiers came and destroyed our villages. Then Long Hair (Custer) came…They say we massacred him, but he would have done the same to us. Our first impulse was to escape but we were so hemmed in we had to fight.”
Crazy Horse, as Remembered by Ohiyesa (Charles A. Eastman)
Image from World Wisdom
Eastman was of Santee Dakota and Anglo-American ancestry. Active in politics and issues on American Indian rights, he worked to improve the lives of youths, and founded thirty-two Native American chapters of the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). He also helped found the Boy Scouts of America. He is considered the first Native American author to write American history from the Native point of view.
Eastman was named Hakadah at his birth, meaning “pitiful last” in the Dakota. Eastman was so named because his mother died following his birth. He was the last of five children of Wakantakawin, a mixed-race woman also known as Mary Nancy Eastman. Eastman’s father, a Santee Dakota named Wak-anhdi Ota (Many Lightnings), lived on a Santee Dakota reservation near Redwood Falls, Minnesota.
Eastman’s mother was the daughter of U.S. Army officer and illustrator Seth Eastman, and Wakháŋ Inážiŋ Wiŋ (Stands Sacred), who married in 1830. Eastman was posted to Fort Snelling, near what is now Minneapolis, and married the fifteen-year-old daughter of Cloud Man, a Santee Dakota chief. Seth Eastman was reassigned from Fort Snelling in 1832, soon after the birth of Winona (meaning “first-born daughter”). He declared his marriage ended when he left, as was typical of many European-American men. Winona was later called Wakantakawin.
In the Dakota tradition of naming to mark life passages, her last son Hakadah was later named Ohíye S’a (Dakota: “wins often”); he had three older brothers (John, David, and James) and an older sister Mary. During the Dakota War of 1862, Ohíye S’a was separated from his father Wak-anhdi Ota and siblings, and they were thought to have died. His maternal grandmother Stands Sacred (Wakháŋ Inážiŋ Wiŋ) and her family took the boy with them as they fled from the warfare into North Dakota and Manitoba, Canada.
Fifteen years later Ohíyesa was reunited with his father and oldest brother John in South Dakota. The father had converted to Christianity, after which he took the surname Eastman and called himself Jacob. John also converted and took the surname Eastman. The Eastman family established a homestead in Dakota Territory. When Ohiyesa accepted Christianity, he took the name Charles Alexander Eastman.
His father strongly supported his sons’ getting an education in European-American style schools. Eastman and his older brother John attended mission and preparatory schools, and college. Eastman first attended Beloit College and Knox colleges; he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1887. He went on to medical school at Boston University, where he graduated in 1889 and was among the first Native Americans to be certified as a European-style doctor.
His older brother became a minister. Rev. John (Maȟpiyawaku Kida) Eastman was a Presbyterian missionary at the Santee Dakota settlement of Flandreau, South Dakota.
Whenever, in the course of the daily hunt, the hunter comes upon a scene that is strikingly beautiful or sublime — a black thundercloud with the rainbow’s arch above the mountain, a white waterfall in the heart of a green gorge, a vast prairie tinged with the blood-red of the sunset — he pauses for an instant in an attitude of worship.
He sees no need for setting apart one day in seven as a holy day, because to him all days are God’s days.
The first American mingled with his pride a singular humility. Spiritual arrogance was foreign to his nature and teaching. He never claimed that the power of articulate speech was proof of superiority over the dumb creation; on the other hand, it is to him a perilous gift.
Every age, every race, has its leaders and heroes. There were over sixty distinct tribes of Indians on this continent, each of which boasted its notable men. The names and deeds of some of these men will live in American history, yet in the true sense they are unknown, because misunderstood. I should like to present some of the greatest chiefs of modern times in the light of the native character and ideals, believing that the American people will gladly do them tardy justice.
It is matter of history that the Sioux nation, to which I belong, was originally friendly to the Caucasian peoples which it met in succession-first, to the south the Spaniards; then the French, on the Mississippi River and along the Great Lakes; later the English, and finally the Americans. This powerful tribe then roamed over the whole extent of the Mississippi valley, between that river and the Rockies. Their usages and government united the various bands more closely than was the case with many of the neighboring tribes.
During the early part of the nineteenth century, chiefs such as Wabashaw, Redwing, and Little Six among the eastern Sioux, Conquering Bear, Man-Afraid-of-His-Horse, and Hump of the western bands, were the last of the old type. After these, we have a coterie of new leaders, products of the new conditions brought about by close contact with the conquering race.
This distinction must be borne in mind — that while the early chiefs were spokesmen and leaders in the simplest sense, possessing no real authority, those who headed their tribes during the transition period were more or less rulers and more or less politicians. It is a singular fact that many of the “chiefs”, well known as such to the American public, were not chiefs at all according to the accepted usages of their tribesmen. Their prominence was simply the result of an abnormal situation, in which representatives of the United States Government made use of them for a definite purpose. In a few cases, where a chief met with a violent death, some ambitious man has taken advantage of the confusion to thrust himself upon the tribe and, perhaps with outside help, has succeeded in usurping the leadership.=
| 1. AMERICAN HORSE
2. CRAZY HORSE
3. DULL KNIFE
6. CHIEF JOSEPH
7. LITTLE CROW
8. LITTLE WOLF
10. RED CLOUD
11. ROMAN NOSE
12. SITTING BULL
13. SPOTTED TAIL
15. TWO STRIKE
Who was Charles Eastman?
Secondary bibliography on Charles Eastman
Biographical sketch at the Native Authors site.
Bibliography and information by Paul Reuben at his PAL site
Pictures and quotations from the National Library of Medicine site.
A slideshow with pictures at the commercial site World Wisdom includes pictures of Eastman and a biographical sketch.
Biographical sketch of Eastman’s wife Elaine Goodale at The National Cyclopedia of American Biography
Works Available Online
Note: The University of Virginia E-text Center now has free versions of Eastman’s works available for download in PalmOS and Microsoft Reader format.
Indian Boyhood (1902) (Virginia)
Red Hunters and the Animal People (1904)
The Madness of Bald Eagle (1905) (Virginia)
Old Indian Days (1907) (Virginia)
Wigwam Evenings (with Elaine Goodale Eastman) (1909)
The Soul of the Indian (1911) Google Books.
Indian Child Life (1913)
Indian Scout Talks (1914)
The Indian To-Day (1915) Google Books.
From the Deep Woods to Civilization(1916) Google Books.
Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains (1918)
Essays and Speeches (all from Google Books)
“Address to the Mohonk Conference” (1907) Google Books.
“The Sioux Mythology” Popular Science Monthly, 1895. Google Books.
“What Can the Out-Of-Doors Do for Our Children?” Education, 1920-21
Letter about Sitting Bull in Moorehead’s The American Indian in the United States
“The Indian as a Citizen,” Lippincott’s, 1914
“The North American Indian” from Spiller’s Papers on Inter-Racial Problems, 1911
Crazy Horse (Tashunkewitko) was born on the Republican River about 1845. He was killed at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, in 1877, so that he lived barely thirty-three years.
He was an uncommonly handsome man. While not the equal of Gall in magnificence and imposing stature, he was physically perfect, an Apollo in symmetry. Furthermore he was a true type of Indian refinement and grace. He was modest and courteous as Chief Joseph; the difference is that he was a born warrior, while Joseph was not. However, he was a gentle warrior, a true brave, who stood for the highest ideal of the Sioux. Notwithstanding all that biased historians have said of him, it is only fair to judge a man by the estimate of his own people rather than that of his enemies.
The boyhood of Crazy Horse was passed in the days when the western Sioux saw a white man but seldom, and then it was usually a trader or a soldier. He was carefully brought up according to the tribal customs. At that period the Sioux prided themselves on the training and development of their sons and daughters, and not a step in that development was overlooked as an excuse to bring the child before the public by giving a feast in its honor. At such times the parents often gave so generously to the needy that they almost impoverished themselves, thus setting an example to the child of self-denial for the general good. His first step alone, the first word spoken, first game killed, the attainment of manhood or womanhood, each was the occasion of a feast and dance in his honor, at which the poor always benefited to the full extent of the parents’ ability.
Big-heartedness, generosity, courage, and self-denial are the qualifications of a public servant, and the average Indian was keen to follow this ideal. As every one knows, these characteristic traits become a weakness when he enters a life founded upon commerce and gain. Under such conditions the life of Crazy Horse began. His mother, like other mothers, tender and watchful of her boy, would never once place an obstacle in the way of his father’s severe physical training. They laid the spiritual and patriotic foundations of his education in such a way that he early became conscious of the demands of public service.
He was perhaps four or five years old when the band was snowed in one severe winter. They were very short of food, but his father was a tireless hunter. The buffalo, their main dependence, were not to be found, but he was out in the storm and cold every day and finally brought in two antelopes. The little boy got on his pet pony and rode through the camp, telling the old folks to come to his mother’s teepee for meat. It turned out that neither his father nor mother had authorized him to do this. Before they knew it, old men and women were lined up before the teepee home, ready to receive the meat, in answer to his invitation. As a result, the mother had to distribute nearly all of it, keeping only enough for two meals.
On the following day the child asked for food. His mother told him that the old folks had taken it all, and added: “Remember, my son, they went home singing praises in your name, not my name or your father’s. You must be brave. You must live up to your reputation.”
Crazy Horse loved horses, and his father gave him a pony of his own when he was very young. He became a fine horseman and accompanied his father on buffalo hunts, holding the pack horses while the men chased the buffalo and thus gradually learning the art. In those days the Sioux had but few guns, and the hunting was mostly done with bow and arrows.
Another story told of his boyhood is that when he was about twelve he went to look for the ponies with his little brother, whom he loved much, and took a great deal of pains to teach what he had already learned. They came to some wild cherry trees full of ripe fruit, and while they were enjoying it, the brothers were startled by the growl and sudden rush of a bear. Young Crazy Horse pushed his brother up into the nearest tree and himself sprang upon the back of one of the horses, which was frightened and ran some distance before he could control him. As soon as he could, however, he turned him about and came back, yelling and swinging his lariat over his head. The bear at first showed fight but finally turned and ran. The old man who told me this story added that young as he was, he had some power, so that even a grizzly did not care to tackle him. I believe it is a fact that a silver-tip will dare anything except a bell or a lasso line, so that accidentally the boy had hit upon the very thing which would drive him off.
It was usual for Sioux boys of his day to wait in the field after a buffalo hunt until sundown, when the young calves would come out in the open, hungrily seeking their mothers. Then these wild children would enjoy a mimic hunt, and lasso the calves or drive them into camp. Crazy Horse was found to be a determined little fellow, and it was settled one day among the larger boys that they would “stump” him to ride a good-sized bull calf. He rode the calf, and stayed on its back while it ran bawling over the hills, followed by the other boys on their ponies, until his strange mount stood trembling and exhausted.
At the age of sixteen he joined a war party against the Gros Ventres. He was well in the front of the charge, and at once established his bravery by following closely one of the foremost Sioux warriors, by the name of Hump, drawing the enemy’s fire and circling around their advance guard. Suddenly Hump’s horse was shot from under him, and there was a rush of warriors to kill or capture him while down. But amidst a shower of arrows the youth leaped from his pony, helped his friend into his own saddle, sprang up behind him, and carried him off in safety, although they were hotly pursued by the enemy. Thus he associated himself in his maiden battle with the wizard of Indian warfare, and Hump, who was then at the height of his own career, pronounced Crazy Horse the coming warrior of the Teton Sioux.
At this period of his life, as was customary with the best young men, he spent much time in prayer and solitude. Just what happened in these days of his fasting in the wilderness and upon the crown of bald buttes, no one will ever know; for these things may only be known when one has lived through the battles of life to an honored old age. He was much sought after by his youthful associates, but was noticeably reserved and modest; yet in the moment of danger he at once rose above them all — a natural leader! Crazy Horse was a typical Sioux brave, and from the point of view of our race an ideal hero, living at the height of the epical progress of the American Indian and maintaining in his own character all that was most subtle and ennobling of their spiritual life, and that has since been lost in the contact with a material civilization.
He loved Hump, that peerless warrior, and the two became close friends, in spite of the difference in age. Men called them “the grizzly and his cub.” Again and again the pair saved the day for the Sioux in a skirmish with some neighboring tribe. But one day they undertook a losing battle against the Snakes. The Sioux were in full retreat and were fast being overwhelmed by superior numbers. The old warrior fell in a last desperate charge; but Crazy Horse and his younger brother, though dismounted, killed two of the enemy and thus made good their retreat.
It was observed of him that when he pursued the enemy into their stronghold, as he was wont to do, he often refrained from killing, and simply struck them with a switch, showing that he did not fear their weapons nor care to waste his upon them. In attempting this very feat, he lost this only brother of his, who emulated him closely. A party of young warriors, led by Crazy Horse, had dashed upon a frontier post, killed one of the sentinels, stampeded the horses, and pursued the herder to the very gate of the stockade, thus drawing upon themselves the fire of the garrison. The leader escaped without a scratch, but his young brother was brought down from his horse and killed.
While he was still under twenty, there was a great winter buffalo hunt, and he came back with ten buffaloes’ tongues which he sent to the council lodge for the councilors’ feast. He had in one winter day killed ten buffalo cows with his bow and arrows, and the unsuccessful hunters or those who had no swift ponies were made happy by his generosity. When the hunters returned, these came chanting songs of thanks. He knew that his father was an expert hunter and had a good horse, so he took no meat home, putting in practice the spirit of his early teaching.
He attained his majority at the crisis of the difficulties between the United States and the Sioux. Even before that time, Crazy Horse had already proved his worth to his people in Indian warfare. He had risked his life again and again, and in some instances it was considered almost a miracle that he had saved others as well as himself. He was no orator nor was he the son of a chief. His success and influence was purely a matter of personality. He had never fought the whites up to this time, and indeed no “coup” was counted for killing or scalping a white man.
Young Crazy Horse was twenty-one years old when all the Teton Sioux chiefs (the western or plains dwellers) met in council to determine upon their future policy toward the invader. Their former agreements had been by individual bands, each for itself, and every one was friendly. They reasoned that the country was wide, and that the white traders should be made welcome. Up to this time they had anticipated no conflict. They had permitted the Oregon Trail, but now to their astonishment forts were built and garrisoned in their territory.
Most of the chiefs advocated a strong resistance. There were a few influential men who desired still to live in peace, and who were willing to make another treaty. Among these were White Bull, Two Kettle, Four Bears, and Swift Bear. Even Spotted Tail, afterward the great peace chief, was at this time with the majority, who decided in the year 1866 to defend their rights and territory by force. Attacks were to be made upon the forts within their country and on every trespasser on the same.
Crazy Horse took no part in the discussion, but he and all the young warriors were in accord with the decision of the council. Although so young, he was already a leader among them. Other prominent young braves were Sword (brother of the man of that name who was long captain of police at Pine Ridge), the younger Hump, Charging Bear, Spotted Elk, Crow King, No Water, Big Road, He Dog, the nephew of Red Cloud, and Touch-the-Cloud, intimate friend of Crazy Horse.
The attack on Fort Phil Kearny was the first fruits of the new policy, and here Crazy Horse was chosen to lead the attack on the woodchoppers, designed to draw the soldiers out of the fort, while an army of six hundred lay in wait for them. The success of this stratagem was further enhanced by his masterful handling of his men. From this time on a general war was inaugurated; Sitting Bull looked to him as a principal war leader, and even the Cheyenne chiefs, allies of the Sioux, practically acknowledged his leadership. Yet during the following ten years of defensive war he was never known to make a speech, though his teepee was the rendezvous of the young men. He was depended upon to put into action the decisions of the council, and was frequently consulted by the older chiefs.
Like Osceola, he rose suddenly; like Tecumseh he was always impatient for battle; like Pontiac, he fought on while his allies were suing for peace, and like Grant, the silent soldier, he was a man of deeds and not of words. He won from Custer and Fetterman and Crook. He won every battle that he undertook, with the exception of one or two occasions when he was surprised in the midst of his women and children, and even then he managed to extricate himself in safety from a difficult position.
Early in the year 1876, his runners brought word from Sitting Bull that all the roving bands would converge upon the upper Tongue River in Montana for summer feasts and conferences. There was conflicting news from the reservation. It was rumored that the army would fight the Sioux to a finish; again, it was said that another commission would be sent out to treat with them.
The Indians came together early in June, and formed a series of encampments stretching out from three to four miles, each band keeping separate camp. On June 17, scouts came in and reported the advance of a large body of troops under General Crook. The council sent Crazy Horse with seven hundred men to meet and attack him. These were nearly all young men, many of them under twenty, the flower of the hostile Sioux. They set out at night so as to steal a march upon the enemy, but within three or four miles of his camp they came unexpectedly upon some of his Crow scouts. There was a hurried exchange of shots; the Crows fled back to Crook’s camp, pursued by the Sioux. The soldiers had their warning, and it was impossible to enter the well-protected camp. Again and again Crazy Horse charged with his bravest men, in the attempt to bring the troops into the open, but he succeeded only in drawing their fire. Toward afternoon he withdrew, and returned to camp disappointed. His scouts remained to watch Crook’s movements, and later brought word that he had retreated to Goose Creek and seemed to have no further disposition to disturb the Sioux. It is well known to us that it is Crook rather than Reno who is to be blamed for cowardice in connection with Custer’s fate. The latter had no chance to do anything, he was lucky to save himself; but if Crook had kept on his way, as ordered, to meet Terry, with his one thousand regulars and two hundred Crow and Shoshone scouts, he would inevitably have intercepted Custer in his advance and saved the day for him, and war with the Sioux would have ended right there. Instead of this, he fell back upon Fort Meade, eating his horses on the way, in a country swarming with game, for fear of Crazy Horse and his braves!
The Indians now crossed the divide between the Tongue and the Little Big Horn, where they felt safe from immediate pursuit. Here, with all their precautions, they were caught unawares by General Custer, in the midst of their midday games and festivities, while many were out upon the daily hunt.
On this twenty-fifth of June, 1876, the great camp was scattered for three miles or more along the level river bottom, back of the thin line of cottonwoods — five circular rows of teepees, ranging from half a mile to a mile and a half in circumference. Here and there stood out a large, white, solitary teepee; these were the lodges or “clubs” of the young men. Crazy Horse was a member of the “Strong Hearts” and the “Tokala” or Fox lodge. He was watching a game of ring-toss when the warning came from the southern end of the camp of the approach of troops.
The Sioux and the Cheyennes were “minute men”, and although taken by surprise, they instantly responded. Meanwhile, the women and children were thrown into confusion. Dogs were howling, ponies running hither and thither, pursued by their owners, while many of the old men were singing their lodge songs to encourage the warriors, or praising the “strong heart” of Crazy Horse.
That leader had quickly saddled his favorite war pony and was starting with his young men for the south end of the camp, when a fresh alarm came from the opposite direction, and looking up, he saw Custer’s force upon the top of the bluff directly across the river. As quick as a flash, he took in the situation — the enemy had planned to attack the camp at both ends at once; and knowing that Custer could not ford the river at that point, he instantly led his men northward to the ford to cut him off. The Cheyennes followed closely. Custer must have seen that wonderful dash up the sage-bush plain, and one wonders whether he realized its meaning. In a very few minutes, this wild general of the plains had outwitted one of the most brilliant leaders of the Civil War and ended at once his military career and his life.
In this dashing charge, Crazy Horse snatched his most famous victory out of what seemed frightful peril, for the Sioux could not know how many were behind Custer. He was caught in his own trap. To the soldiers it must have seemed as if the Indians rose up from the earth to overwhelm them. They closed in from three sides and fought until not a white man was left alive. Then they went down to Reno’s stand and found him so well intrenched in a deep gully that it was impossible to dislodge him. Gall and his men held him there until the approach of General Terry compelled the Sioux to break camp and scatter in different directions.
While Sitting Bull was pursued into Canada, Crazy Horse and the Cheyennes wandered about, comparatively undisturbed, during the rest of that year, until in the winter the army surprised the Cheyennes, but did not do them much harm, possibly because they knew that Crazy Horse was not far off. His name was held in wholesome respect. From time to time, delegations of friendly Indians were sent to him, to urge him to come in to the reservation, promising a full hearing and fair treatment.
For some time he held out, but the rapid disappearance of the buffalo, their only means of support, probably weighed with him more than any other influence. In July, 1877, he was finally prevailed upon to come in to Fort Robinson, Nebraska, with several thousand Indians, most of them Ogallala and Minneconwoju Sioux, on the distinct understanding that the government would hear and adjust their grievances.
At this juncture General Crook proclaimed Spotted Tail, who had rendered much valuable service to the army, head chief of the Sioux, which was resented by many. The attention paid Crazy Horse was offensive to Spotted Tail and the Indian scouts, who planned a conspiracy against him. They reported to General Crook that the young chief would murder him at the next council, and stampede the Sioux into another war. He was urged not to attend the council and did not, but sent another officer to represent him. Meanwhile the friends of Crazy Horse discovered the plot and told him of it. His reply was, “Only cowards are murderers.”
His wife was critically ill at the time, and he decided to take her to her parents at Spotted Tail agency, whereupon his enemies circulated the story that he had fled, and a party of scouts was sent after him. They overtook him riding with his wife and one other but did not undertake to arrest him, and after he had left the sick woman with her people he went to call on Captain Lea, the agent for the Brules, accompanied by all the warriors of the Minneconwoju band. This volunteer escort made an imposing appearance on horseback, shouting and singing, and in the words of Captain Lea himself and the missionary, the Reverend Mr. Cleveland, the situation was extremely critical. Indeed, the scouts who had followed Crazy Horse from Red Cloud agency were advised not to show themselves, as some of the warriors had urged that they be taken out and horsewhipped publicly. Under these circumstances Crazy Horse again showed his masterful spirit by holding these young men in check. He said to them in his quiet way: “It is well to be brave in the field of battle; it is cowardly to display bravery against one’s own tribesmen. These scouts have been compelled to do what they did; they are no better than servants of the white officers. I came here on a peaceful errand.”
The captain urged him to report at army headquarters to explain himself and correct false rumors, and on his giving consent, furnished him with a wagon and escort. It has been said that he went back under arrest, but this is untrue. Indians have boasted that they had a hand in bringing him in, but their stories are without foundation. He went of his own accord, either suspecting no treachery or determined to defy it.
When he reached the military camp, Little Big Man walked arm-in-arm with him, and his cousin and friend, Touch-the-Cloud, was just in advance. After they passed the sentinel, an officer approached them and walked on his other side. He was unarmed but for the knife which is carried for ordinary uses by women as well as men. Unsuspectingly he walked toward the guardhouse, when Touch-the-Cloud suddenly turned back exclaiming: “Cousin, they will put you in prison!”
“Another white man’s trick! Let me go! Let me die fighting!” cried Crazy Horse. He stopped and tried to free himself and draw his knife, but both arms were held fast by Little Big Man and the officer. While he struggled thus, a soldier thrust him through with his bayonet from behind. The wound was mortal, and he died in the course of that night, his old father singing the death song over him and afterward carrying away the body, which they said must not be further polluted by the touch of a white man. They hid it somewhere in the Bad Lands, his resting place to this day.
Thus died one of the ablest and truest American Indians. His life was ideal; his record clean. He was never involved in any of the numerous massacres on the trail, but was a leader in practically every open fight. Such characters as those of Crazy Horse and Chief Joseph are not easily found among so-called civilized people. The reputation of great men is apt to be shadowed by questionable motives and policies, but here are two pure patriots, as worthy of honor as any who ever breathed God’s air in the wide spaces of a new world.
Biography written by Mari Sandoz
“The Strange Man of the Oglalas”
by Jim Postema
April 14, 1995
Ferolito, Vultaggio & Sons
5 Dakota Drive
Lake Success, NY 11042
Dear Messrs. Ferolito and Vultaggio:
We are writing to you, the owners of Hornell Brewing Company, to appeal to your sense of justice and rightness as fellow human beings. As you can see from the names and information included about people who have signed this letter, we come from all walks of life, from a wide variety of experiences and backgrounds. But despite our many differences, we share a common belief: that all of us, including you, are part of the vast interconnected web of life on this earth. With our actions we can, as can you, influence the lives and happiness of other human beings. On this basis, then, we ask you to change the name of your company’s product, “Crazy Horse Malt Liquor,” to a name that does not use Native American images or persons to sell the product.
We believe that by using Crazy Horse’s name to sell alcohol your company is perpetuating the widespread ignorance about Crazy Horse and all Native Americans in two ways. First, in attempting to create a romantic image for your brand of alcohol, you have used stereotypes about “savage” Indian fighters, demonstrating and spreading a lack of understanding of who Crazy Horse was and what he was fighting for. Secondly, by using his name to sell alcohol you are further contributing to one of the worst stereotypes of Native Americans, that of the “drunk Indian.”
You may be unaware of the sad history of the use of alcohol by Europeans as a tool to exploit Natives. Throughout the last four centuries, whites have distributed alcohol as a way of getting better terms from Indians in land deals, to lower prices in the old fur trade, and still today, to reap huge profits from liquor sales near reservations while contributing nothing to the Indian community. Not surprisingly, whites have twisted the history of this exploitation, by creating and perpetuating the stereotype that Indians are somehow natural alcoholics–when in fact there is abuse of alcohol in both white and Native communities. Naming an alcoholic product after an Indian only adds to this already widespread stereotype.
We also believe that your choice of brand name, even if inadvertently, degrades the man whose name you have used, Tashunke Witko. The man whose name is translated into English as “Crazy Horse” was renowned for his bravery and for his refusal to submit to white oppression. He was a visionary man, a spiritual leader for his people and, above all, a reverential man, with a profound awareness of the spiritual world. But because he has been both romanticized and vilified by an ignorant white world, most Americans do not know of these aspects of his nature.
Furthermore, Crazy Horse himself outspokenly denounced the use of alcohol by his people. So by putting his name on an alcoholic product, your company not only adds to the stereotype of the “drunk Indian,” it also degrades the memory of a man who fought exactly the kind of exploitation that alcohol represents. We are confident that–of all people–Crazy Horse himself would never have allowed his name to be associated with your product, because it is something that has been used at times to subdue his people and to contribute to their occasional turning away from spiritual wellbeing. Your use of his name to sell alcohol goes against everything that he himself stood for, and everything for which he is remembered and honored.
Can you understand, Mr. Ferolito, how a devout Catholic might feel if someone were to open up an abortion clinic and name it the “Pope John Paul Abortion Center”? No matter what one feels personally about the issue of abortion, it would be clear that such a name for a clinic would be not only inappropriate but offensive. This example may help explain how Native people react to “Crazy Horse Malt Liquor,” and may help you understand just how deeply offensive that product name is to Native Americans and others concerned with justice.
We want to offer a clear image of Crazy Horse to society and we would like to work with you to correct misconceptions. We ask you, then, Mr. Vultaggio, to reconsider your use of Crazy Horse’s name. If our concerns are not clear to you, or if you would like to discuss this issue further, there are members of our group who would be very happy to do so. We would be available to help you educate your employees or stockholders, too, if you felt this to be necessary, and we can suggest resources or contact people in your area who could help you work towards positive change.
Mr. Vultaggio, Mr. Ferolito, you have an opportunity here to become true leaders in your industry: by moving beyond sales which benefit only your stockholders’ pocketbooks, you could help create a spirit of cooperation and awareness that has yet to be seen in the history of the alcohol trade. We ask you, then, to have the courage to benefit others in non-material ways. Please take this opportunity to help educate the American people. Please stop manufacturing and selling malt liquor in the name of an esteemed spiritual leader of this continent.
Sincerely, the following concerned people, who have all asked to have their names included on this letter (Please note that, for everyone listed below, professional and other affiliations are included only to provide information about those individuals. That information is for identification purposes only, and does not imply any support from the organizations mentioned.):
Larry Abbott, middle-school English teacher, Middlebury, VT; editor of I Stand in the Center of the Good, a series of interviews with contemporary Native artists
Wilbert H. Ahern, Chair, Division of Social Sciences, and Professor, History, Univ. of Minnesota-Morris
Ryan Amptmeyer, Dutch heritage, with grand- parents who participated in the Dutch Resistance; member, Young Commu- nist League; graduate student, Linguistics, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN; drug-free since January 1991
Carol Anderson, Assistant professor, Kalamazoo College, MI
Chris Allen Anderson, Anishinabe from Manitoulin Island, Ontario, raised in Michigan; studying mathematical sciences, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton; works as Conferences Student Coordinator; plans graduate work in Native American Studies
Eric Anderson, Visiting Lecturer, Native American History and Literature, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ
Tyson Arnold, Oneida; Sociology major, SUNY-Utica/Rome
Bevan Baas, Navajo; Doctoral student, Electrical Engineering, Stanford Univ.
Jordan Bacon, Kaska Dena Nation, British Columbia; Program Coordinator, Division of Continuing Studies, Univ. of Victoria, B.C.
Karren Baird-Olson, Wyandotte, with children who are enrolled members of the Assiniboine tribe, and grandchildren who are Wyandotte, Assiniboine, Sioux, and Blackfeet; Assistant Prof., Dept. of Anthropology, Sociology, and Social Work, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS; Ph.D. candidate, Univ. of New Mexico; teaches courses in criminology and race and ethnic relations; advisor to Native American student groups at KSU; marched on the Trail of Broken Treaties, 1972; served as first outside coordinator, Native American Cultural Group, Montana State Prison; friend and supporter of Leonard Peltier
Cecilia A. Barrera, Comanche; student, Yale Univ., New London, CT
Martin Baxter, American Indian Science & Engineering Society member, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu
Eldena Bear Don’t Walk, Crow/Salish/Metis from Billings, MT; studying sociology/criminology at Univ. of Montana, as a pre-law student
Audrey Bell, Library assistant, Univ. of Texas- Arlington Central Library; single parent; active in Native American Support Group of Norway
Danny Bell, Lumbee-Cheraw of Carolina; Student Aid Office, Univ. of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Clarisa Bencomo, Chicana raised in Ari- zona; graduate student, Princeton Univ., NJ; living in Cairo, Egypt, with spouse, who is an Egyptian human-rights lawyer
Todd Benson, Norwegian-American; Lecturer in U.S. History, Stanford Univ., CA; also teaches at Foothill College, Los Altos Hills, CA John D. Berry, Assistant professor, Oklahoma State Univ.; member, Native American Faculty and Staff Organization
Christina D. Black, Secretary, Dean’s Office, College of Liberal Arts and Letters, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN; has adopted a Navajo elder; active in support of Clifford Dann and Leonard Peltier
Benay Blend, Instructor, Louisiana School for Math, Science, and the Arts, Natchitoches, LA; teaches Native American Studies and Minority Literature
Thomas Bohuski, Systems programmer, Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green; research astronomer, and teaches astronomy
Elizabeth Bonnett, Winnipeg, Manitoba
P. Bonvillain, Paralegal , Ojibwe ancestry; Programmer, IBM, Pittsboro, NC
Jeane Breinig, Haida, Univ. of Washington
William Brescia, Mississippi Choctaw; Development Officer, Research University Graduate School, Indiana Univ., Bloom- ington; working on doctorate in Education
Paul W. Bristol Social activist, bilingual advocate, consultant, writer, teacher, actor, musician, entertainer, father
Jackie Brown, Lenape (Eastern Oklahoma Delaware) registered through Cherokee tribe of Oklahoma; Cataloguer, University of Florida Libraries; mother of two daughters, and married for 28 years
Jay Brummett / Cecala Ptehincalaska – Calf, Moderation Staff, NativeNet
Neilly A. Buckalew, Kwanitewk NATIVE Resource/Network, a coalition of Native Peoples/Groups and an intertribal network in New England for outreach, education, activism, and rights advocacy
Rahman Ali Bugg, Cherokee ancestry; student, Syracuse Univ., NY, studying television-radio-film production
Elizabeth Burns, Secretary, Arizona State Univ.
Timothy Bushman, Assini- boine/Cree from Fort Peck Reservation, Montana; Computer Systems Technician, Information Systems Dept., Rockwell International, Newport Beach, Calif.
Alix Casteel, Totonac heritage; Graduate student, literature, Univ. of Michigan
Lin Collette, Graduate student, Race and Religious Studies, Union Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio
Linda Cowles, white, some of whose family members are Cherokee; design engineer; belongs to 17 social, athletic, political, cultural, and/or religious organizations
Patrick Crowe, Anthropology, State Univ. of New York at Buffalo
Elaine Cubbins, Doctoral student and instruc- tor, Library Science, Univ. of Arizona; regular volunteer at the Venito Garcia Library, Sells, AZ, on the Tohono O’odham reservation
Thaddeus Cunejo, Dine/Ashiwi; Media specialist, Literacy Programs, El Paso, Texas
R. Michael Czwarno, English, Welsh, Polish, and French background; Canadian archaeologist, working as Archaeological Computing Officer, Institute of Archaeology, University College, Univ. of London, England; works with indigenous peoples of Peru; some professional affiliations with North American Native peoples
Alx V. Dark, Dept. of Anthropology, New York Univer- sity
Catherine Degnen, Graduate student, Medical Anthropology, McGill Univ., Montreal
James Derringer, Potawatomi/Cherokee, Prairie Band/Thunder Clan; Circulation Supervisor, Math/Science Library, Purdue Univ., with graduate work in political science and anthropology
Norm Dinges, Psychology Dept., Univ. of Alaska- Fairbanks; Faculty member, Public Policy, Univ. of Alaska-Anchorage; over twenty years’ experience in mental health and substance abuse intervention programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives
Sherry Downing, student, Algoma University College, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Lucy E. Doyle, Senior statistician, Child and Family Studies, Florida Mental Health Institute, Univ. of South Flo- rida, Tampa
Phil Duran, Tigua/Chicano; Information Technol- ogy, Washington State Univ., Pullman; has worked in higher education all his professional life; poet, father, grandfather, and husband
Kevin Dye, Humanities instructur, teaching Ameri- can Indian Literatures, English, and developmental English; works clo- sely with Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation; Educa- tion Department; Coordinator of Native American Program supporting Indian students at Central Oregon Community College
Katharine English, freelance writer and editor; stringer for COLORS magazine, based in Rome; lives in San Francisco, CA
Mark Fettes, Writer-researcher in the field of language policy, particularly Aboriginal languages and Esperanto; has worked with the Assembly of First Nations, the Canadian Centre for Linguistic Rights, and the Universal Esperanto Association; Ottawa, Ontario, originally from New Zealand
Richard Fisher, American Cultural Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Candace M. Fleming, Kickapoo Nation of Kansas (enrolled member), Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma (registered voter), and Oneida of Wisconsin; Assistant professor, Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center; Associate Director, Training and Minority Alco- hol Scholar for the National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research; Co-Director, Healthy Nations National Program Office; President-Elect for the Board of Directors, National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics; single adoptive mother of Lakota/Hispanic girl
Kelly Franklin, Cherokee/Shawnee; Student, Univ. of Washington; co-secretary, Univ. of Washington First Nations group; working on a video project studying media images of Native Americans
Heather Franz, Irish and German descent; student, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA; concerned with women’s rights, and gay/lesbian and bisexual rights
David Friesenhahn, Student and humanist, Texas A&M Univ., College Station, Texas
Andrea L. Gadberry, Student in Anthropology, University of Illinois, studying Native American folklore
Lynn Galiste, Wintu/Filipino; mother of two adult children; twenty-year member, administrative staff, Univ. of California
Sean Patrick George, Choctaw and European heritage; Graduate student, Library and Information Science, Louisiana State Univ., with Psychology degree from Univ. of Southern Mississippi; former teacher, East Baton Rouge Parish School System, in the Teach for American Corps; active in honorary, service, and social organizations, as well as in regional powwows and dancing activities
Brian K. Gill, Cherokee ancestry; Student, Humboldt State University, Humboldt, California
Gil Gilmore, African American; lawyer, church organ- ist, activist in progressive causes, Norwalk, CT
Judith M. Gobert, Blackfeet, Nakota, and Salish, with Shoshone, Nez Perce, German and Scottish ancestors; Mother of three, daughter, sister, and granddaughter to many; Graduate student, Microbiology/Biochemistry; AIDS researcher; Division of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Montana, Missoula
Daniel Gough, Office of Native American Programs, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Seattle, Washington
Bryan Graeve, Fox heritage; student, Univ. of Wiscon- sin-Milwaukee
Barbara L. Graham, Rosebud Lakota; Doctoral student, Child Clinical Psychology, Univ. of Minnesota
Joanna Claire Grey, Metis (Cherokee, Kiowa, Irish, with affiliations to Hupa/Yuork as well); teaches Sociology and Native American Classes, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque
Thomas D. Hall, Professor, Dept. of Sociology, DePauw Univ., Greencastle, IN
Leah Halper, teaches history and journalism, Gavilan College, San Jose, CA; lives on Ohlone land
Brenda Hamlin-Lehmann, Anishinaabe, White Earth/Prior Lake Tribes, working at Univ. of Minnesota Human Resources
M. Harper, Anishinaabe, White I add my name and SPIRIT to your movement to have the name of the great warrior removed from that product so antithetical to all he lived for…
Lisa Harrison, Administrative specialist, Procter and Gamble; history and marketing major, Univ. of Cincinnati
Barbara Hauser, Partner, law firm of Gray Plant Plant Mooty Mooty Bennett; has lived on Navajo reservation for two years
Karen Hawkins, Graduate student, School for International Training, Brattleboro, VT, studying sustainable develop- ment
Helen Andon Haynes, Koyukon Athabascan (Interior Alaska); Deputy Director, Healthy Nations, an initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce harm to to alcohol, drug, and tobacco abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native communities
Michelle Herman, Seneca and German ancestry; studying Indian literature and film, Univ. of Chicago
David H. Hestand, Texas Cherokee, with family ties to Eastern Band Cherokee; Detective Lieutenant, Weber State Univ., with 27 years’ experience in law enforcement; advisor and advocate for Weber State Campus Native American Council
Mary Hill, doctoral student, Psychology, Ohio State Univ.
Steve Hinton, Biologist and owner of RS Hinton & Associates, Portland, Oregon. All of his projects include consulting and working with native nations of the northwest; the company is dedi- cated to conservation and preservation of biodiversity, as well as respect, understanding, and honor for the diversity of cultures in the region
Yash Holbrook, Anglo-European; Analyst at a major international relations thinktank; husband, and father of two girls
Amye Hommel, Latina; Student, Syracuse Univ., NY
Dee Horne, English Dept., Univ. of Northern British Columbia, teaching Postcolonial Theory and First Nations Literatures in English
Heather Horton, Creek/Cherokee; Pre- Pharmacy student, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN
Brian Hosmer, Assistant professor, Univ. of Delaware, Ethnohistory of Native America; has researched economics and social transformation issues
Ken E.Kala Hunt, Laguna Pueblo; graduate student, School of Public Health, Univ. of Hawai’i-Manoa, residing in Waimanalo, Hawai’i
Emily Hutton, Head of Collection Development, Colgate Univ. Library, Hamilton, NY
Barbara Inyan, Geography Department, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder
Jaskoski, Helen, Professor, American literature, California State University-Fullerton; past editor, Studies in American Indian Literatures
Simone Jonaitis, Little River Band Ottawa, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Dalton Jones, Pamunkey, Cherokee, and African-American background; father of six-year-old daughter
Walter T. Kawamoto, Student/New Prof. Rep to the Ethnic Minorities Section of the National Council on Family Relations; PhD student in Family Studies at Oregon State University
Larry Kibby, Consultant/Director, Western Shoshone Historic Preservation Society
Maresa Kirk, Circulation Services Coordinator at an Oregon library
Steven J. Kirk, Free-lance editor; graduate student, Creative Writing, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
William and Carla Kurtz, Lower Brule Sioux (Lakota)
M. Daphne Kutzer, Associate professor, English, State Univ. of New York, living near Awkwesasnea and Oka
Victor Lares, Chicano; Counseling Consultation Service, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison; work emphasizes Chicano/a politics (social, educational, etc.), as well as those of other ethnic minori- ties; interested in Chicano/a recruitment and retention in higher edu- cation; great grandparents assassinated by whites
Joy Lintelmann, History Dept., Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota; teaches Native American and U.S. History
Allan Liska, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park
Colette Little Fawn Becker, Cherokee, Baltimore, MD; Administrative aide, University of Maryland, Baltimore; works with Piscataway Nation, Maryland
Carol F. L. Liu, Librarian, library administrator, New York City; President, Library Administration and Management Association, of the American Library Association; volunteer, American Indian Community House, New York City
Mary D. Longboat-Musser, Cayuga from the Six Nations Reserve; sociology major at Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock; works in Pathology Dept., Veterans’ Administration Hospital; mother of three children
Mary N. MacDonald, History of Religions, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY
Pat Mail, Public Health Educator/Medical Anthropologist, who has worked with Indian people for 20 years in Ari- zona, Washington, Oregon and New Mexico; has documented impact of alcohol on Indian people; co-compiler of “Tulapai to Tokay” bibliogra- phy; has worked to establish alcohol counseling, prevention, and treatment programs in Indian country; regional FAS Prevention Trainer, 1984-85
David Markham, works at The Health Association, Roch- ester, NY, which runs the Daybreak Alcoholism Treatment Facility and also the National Council of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Rochester Area
Lisa Mason Admisistrative Assistant United Tribes of the Americas
Janet McAdams, Anglo, Creek, graduate student, Institute of Liberal Arts, Emory University
Chuck McAfee, employee of Hewlett Packard working at the American Indian Science Engineering Society, Boulder, CO
Mary E. McAfee, Doctoral can- didate, Education, Colorado State Univ., Boulder, studying American Indians in higher education
Clark McClelland I am honored to add my name to your list.
Michael Meadows, School of Media and Journalism, Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisband, QLD, Australia; has researched and written about emergence of indigenous media in both Australia and Canada
Wendy Meeks, Potawatomi; Student, Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY; mother of five
Mary Healy Mihalyi, grandmother and mother
Carol Miller, enrolled member, Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma; Associate professor, Dept. of American Indian Studies, Univ. of Minnesota
Mary Jane Miller, Dept. of Film Studies, Dramatic and Visual Arts, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario
Susan Miller, member, Seminole Nation; his- torian, Oak Park, IL
Maria Montour, Mohawk/Delaware, from the Six Nations Reserve, mother of child who is also Akwesasne Mohawk background; Aqueous geochemist, United States Geological Survey, Denver, studying mining activities, hoping to study environmental impacts on Native Ameri- cans
David L. Moore, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York
Kelly Morgan, Hunkpapa Lakota, from Standing Rock Reser- vation; Instructor, English Dept., Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln
Patricia L. Morse, Department of American Thought and Language, Michigan State University, East Lansing
Ann Murphy, Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Univ. of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia
Julia Murphy, Toronto
Robert M. Nelson, Professor, English Dept., Univ. of Richmond, VA
Jennifer B. Norris, Staff, Boalt Hall School of Law, Univ. of California, Berkeley
Jane I. Olmsted, Graduate student and instruc- tor, English Dept. and Women’s Studies Program, Univ. of Minnesota; mother of three boys
Dr. Mary Jo Ondrechen, Kahnawake Mohawk Band; Profes- sor, Chemistry Dept., Northeastern Univ., Boston
Kathy Partridge, Saami/Lapplander and American; Program officer of a private foundation, Longmont, Colorado
Michael Patterson, Metis (Irish and Iroquois); Writer and musician, working on M.A. thesis on Native music in Canada; host of Spirit Voice Radio; Music Editor, “Aboriginal Voices” magazine (formerly “The Runner”); Ottawa, Ontario
Alison Perry, British exchange student, Native American Studies, Univ. of California-Berkeley
Donna Peterson, Tlingit from Juneau, Alaska; a Raven; Computer engineer, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and Cellular Technical, Seattle, with degree from California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo; wife and mother of two chidlren; farmer; active in issues concerning Alaska Native Corporation
Vince Petronio, Communication Studies/Computer Support, College of Continuing Education, Univ. of Rhode Island
Andrew J. Petto, Associate Director, Center for Biology Education, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
Frederic Plewniak, Strasbourg, France
Caroline Pomeroy, Fisheries social scientist, Indiana Univ., Bloomington
James Postema, English Dept., Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota; teaches Native American and United States liter- atures; coordinator, Native American Stereotype Awareness Project
Gary W. Priester and Mary E. Carter, “white, mid- dle-aged, middle-class supporters of Native American rights”
Mary Carol Randall, Poet; Publications Coordinator, School of Education, UC Berkeley
Sarah Read, Staff, Current Periodicals/Stacks Section, Knight Library, Univ. of Oregon, Eugene
Mark Rednour, with tribal affiliation through great- grandfather; student, Geography and Mass Communications, Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville
Carter C. Revard, Osage; Professor of English, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; poet
H. Henning Riebe, Canadian, Deutsche, Gitksan; Systems Programmer, Hagen, Germany
Mary Ritchie, Bode’Wad Mi, grandmother, feminist, beadworker, visual anthropologist, co-founder of the Kenosha-Racine Native American Council
Ruth Ritchie, Honours student in History and Native Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario
J. Robinson, Anglo-Irish-Scotch, with distant connections to Lenape; Union steward and activist; active with Irish Northern Aid
Susan L. Rockwell, Director, National Office, National Association for Ethnic Studies; graduate student, Arizona State Univ., studying Native women’s autobiographies; Anglo who has experienced minority status while living in South America
James J. Roper, Ecologist, Dept. of Biology, Leidy Labs, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
Alfred F. Rosa, English Dept., Univ. of Vermont; editor of books on language, including “Language Awareness” (St. Martin’s Press)
Maria-Helena von Rosen, Graduate student, Sweden
Sylvia Rowe, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, English, Irish, French, Welsh, and Scottish, with children of Cherokee, Italian and German ancestry as well
Sally Ryman, Crow and German heritage; student, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA; the first in family to attend college; plans graduate work in Slavic Literature
Elizabeth J. Sacca’, Concordia University, Montreal, PQ Canada
B Frederique Samuel, Health, Kinesiology & Leisure Studies, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; British citizen, associated with the Colorado River Indian Tribes
Jennifer Sergi, English Department, Rhode Island College
Mary Sheldon, Assistant professor, English, Washburn Univ., Topeka, KS; master’s degree in Pastoral Ministry, Loyola Univ.; past Director, Native American Ministry, Kansas City, Kansas Diocese, Roman Catholic Church; past Director, Shawnee County Jail Ecumenical Ministries; active in Topeka Peace and Justice Center; engaged to a Lakota man; mother
Brett Lee Shelton, Oglala Lakota, born in South Dakota, raised in Colorado; Law student, Stanford Univ., CA Jennifer Shelton, University of Toronto, Anglo-Canadian
Waya Gola–J.T. Shupe Associate Program- mer, IBM, Rochester, Minnesota; professional AISES member
Gary Smith (Night Owl), Mixed-blood Blackfeet; Distribu- tor of Wotanging Ikche (Native American News)
Steve Smith, Oneida and Menominee; statistician at the Smithsonian Institution; active with the Smithsonian’s American Indian Council
Lew Soens, Dept. of English, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN
Allan B. Spiegel, of European descent; Product Engineer, Novell, Inc.; member, Board of Directors, Amanaka’s Amazon Network
Cheryl Suzack, Anishinabae, Batchewana First Nations of Ojbway Reservation, near Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario; graduate stu- dent, Univ. of Guelph, ON, in English, specializing in Native litera- ture; fluent Ojibway speaker
Timothy R. Sweet, Assistant professor, English Dept., West Virginia Univ.; teaches American and Native American lit- eratures
Pat Talley, of Cherokee ancestry; special librarian for a financial institution
Dawn Taylor, Navajo; chemistry/biology student, Colorado State Univ., planning to study pharmacy; AISES regional representative and executive board secretary; board member of Night Walker, non-profit organization benefiting reservation Indians); volunteer at local children’s clinic; Miss Indian World Contestant
Linda Taylor, Navajo; Environmental specialist, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Navajo Reservation, with master’s degree in special education and administration; a deaf teacher of both the dis- abled and non-disabled
Linda Thomas, community-college librarian, with an interest in social justice issues
David Tilsen, Direct Expressions, Inc.; activist in cam- paign to free Leonard Peltier
A. Scott Tippetts, Cherokee, Scottish, Swiss, English; Chief Statistician/Data Analyst, National Public Services Research Institute, Washington, D.C.; has researched alcohol/drug issues and their physiological, psychological, social, and economic effects; hus- band and father of two children
Iva Wolf Trottier, Fort Peck Assiniboine and Chip- pewa; Psychology Dept., Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota
Anneliese Truame, Pima, Anglo, Mexican; Graduate student and instructor, English literature, Univ. of Washington
Gary S. Trujillo, Computer specialist; founder and co-moderator of NativeNet; environmentalist
Nora Bunce Tsalagi, Cherokee; graduating Elementary Education student, with Psychology degree; past president, Southern Oregon State College Native American Student Union; delegate to Oregon Indian Education Association and Association of Post- Secondary Education; has worked to develop mentoring programs for at- risk high-school students; has developed programs for wilderness-living experiences for youth; nine years’ experience as a medical technician where she witnessed many problems stemming from alcohol abuse; mother; counselor
Delphine Tsinajinnie, Nihookaa’ Dine’e; Biology student, Arizona State Univ.
Lester Tsosie, Dine’; MBA student, Univ. of Arizona
Renn Tumlison, Dept. of Biology, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia, AR
Joseph F. Uher, member of an intertribal community (Lakota, Apache, Chumash, Nanticoke and Lenilenape, Abenaki and Cherokee) in Eastern Shore, Maryland
Shelley Urbizagastegui, Governent Documents Librarian, Whittier College, Whittier, California; son Waira is Quechua
Mark Vallen, artist/activist, Los Angeles, trying to work for social change through his art, in particular designing for community-action and social-justice organizations
Gerard Vandeburg, educator, Rocky Boy School, Rocky Boy’s Reservation, Montana
Dawn Van Hall, Chair, Native American Con- cerns Committee, State University of New ork-Cortland; campus photo- grapher
Denis Viri, Italian-American descent; Director of Tribal Relations and Outreach, Pima County Community College Dis- trict, Tucscon, AZ
Andy Wainwright, Poet and professor of Canadian literature, including Native fiction, poetry, and film, Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia
Joel Wainwright, Norwegian/German ancestry; Environmental Studies student, Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA
Glenn Welker, Computer Consultant/Web Master – Indigenous Peoples Literature
Lori Windle, Enrolled member, Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, White Earth; Video producer, Dept. of the Interior, Surface Mining Reclamation; had award-winning documentary, Red Earth American Indian Film and Video Competition, 1995; Secretary, American Indian Program Council, a cross-agency committee of Federal employees con- cerned with increasing visibility, recruitment, and retention of Indians in Federal workforce; member, advisory panel, Denver Center for the Performing Arts American Indian Theatre Academy, and also on the Denver Center’s Indian Task Force Committee
Janet Lee Wright, Citizens’ Band Potawatomi of Oklahoma, living in Oxon Hill, Maryland
Kari Ylitalo, BM, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oulu, Finland
Orlando Mannie U.S.Marines MWSS-274, ARM PSC BOX 8079 Cherrypoint,NC 28533
James Robert Wolf Chester, New Jersey, 1985 graduate from Bethany College, Bethany WV Currently the Special Assistant to the Executive Director of the United States Equestrian Team as well as the Director of Three Day Event Activities.
Suzanne Drake, RN, CNS, MA Psychotherapist Ramsey, New Jersey
CC: Jeff Labowski
Minnesota State Attorney General’s Office
525 Park St.
St. Paul, MN 55103
Robert Gough, Attorney for Seth
Big Crow and Crazy Horse’s heirs
P.O. Box 25
Rosebud, SD 57570